YETT  Young Experts’ Think Tank


Champion Poole


Trafficking in Women: A Threat to International Security




The World Watch Institute, as well as others, has declared violence against women and girls among the most common human rights violation on Earth.  Yet one of its most striking forms – Internationally organized prostitution, often goes unrecognized.  Trafficking in Persons, especially women and children, is a modern day from of slavery that is prevalent throughout the world, and like other international crime has global consequences.  Traffickers in women and children, much like terrorists and narcotics traffickers, operate boldly across sovereign borders.[1] The trafficking industry World- wide also is closely intertwined with other related criminal activities, such as extortion, racketeering, money laundering, the bribery of public officials, drug use, and gambling.  The purpose of this paper will be to investigate the nature of internationally organized prostitution using isolated country case studies as examples, then to address the causes and consequences of trafficking, while finally arriving at a discussion of the fundamental policy implications it poses for the international community.  Combating trafficking requires a coordinated effort between countries of origin, transit, and destination due to its transnational character, meaning isolated country policies will not be enough to stop this threat to international security.







Trafficking Recruitment Patterns



Throughout the world, millions of girls and women who do not voluntarily choose to become prostitutes, but are either duped, kidnapped, raped, coerced, or sold outright and are becoming members of the modern day slave trade.[2]  Traffickers have taken advantage of the unequal status of women and girls in source and transit countries, including harmful stereotypes of women as property, commodities, servants, and sexual objects.  To the traffickers people are highly profitable, low risk, expendable, reusable, and re-sellable commodities. As well, whereas ventures such as drug smuggling or trafficking reap only short-term monetary gain, trafficking people takes advantage of exploitation for long-term economic gain.  Organized crime groups profit from both the trafficking fees and the trafficked person’s labor.[3]

            Traffickers begin their journey by scouring train stations, poor villages, and urban streets looking for young girls and women who look vulnerable.[4]  Most women in city brothels come from small rural villages where agricultural development policies have pushed many families off their land into poverty.  Brothel agents visit the villages where they induce parents to bond their daughters to the brothels in exchange for cash.  Additional inducements may include refrigerators, televisions, jewelry, which are often offered for virgins under the age of 17.[5]  Once in a brothel she is in “indentured servitude”, she must earn back her debt which includes the money that was exchanged for her “purchase”.  As well, money is deducted from days lost due to illness, menstruation, and turning away a customer who refuses to wear a condom.  She may never see any of the money she earns but may work her entire life trying to pay off her debt.  If a women gets pregnant or is stricken with AIDS she may be sent home with nothing more then bus fare.  Once at home, because of the shame she was trapped into she often has little chance of being accepted back into her family.[6]

Another pattern of recruitment is common to the collapsed communist regimes of Central and Eastern Europe, the former Soviet states, and Russia.  First, there has been a two-step movement of women from East to West.  The first movement is of Russians, Ukrainians, Moldavians, and Belarussians into the trade of Central Europe.  The second movement is of these women and Central and Eastern Europeans to Western cities.[7]  Slavic women in particular have supplanted Filipinos and Thais as the most common foreign offering in European brothels.[8]  Recruitment takes place usually when a young woman, under the age of 23, is approached by a trafficker.  She is offered employment, usually as a waitress or maid in Central or Western Europe.  There her passport or identity papers are stolen, and she is sold to brothel owners – many of them based in Germany, a chief destination for trafficked women, in exchange for a few thousand dollars.  If she resists, she is isolated, beaten and often raped.  “Thus, broken, she begins her brothel career held by means of physical abuse, dept and bondage in involuntary sexual servitude.”[9]

The EU estimates that 300,000 women a year are smuggled into the EU and more wealthy central European countries.  There are around 20,000 women in 600 or so brothels in the Czech Republic alone, most are foreigners smuggled into the country.  Ukraine’s interior ministry believes that many of the 400,000 women that have left the country since independence have been drawn into the sex industry.[10]




The Fall of the Iron Curtain



According to the international organization for migration, the number of women shipped to Western Europe from Central and Eastern Europe has soared since the fall of the Iron Curtain.  Women from Eastern Europe quickly replaced women from the developing world  as the main prey of the sex trade and its complex web of organized crime.[11] The IOM also confirmed that most victims were under 25 and many aged 15-18, and that many of these foreign women earn as little as $5-10 for a half hour of unprotected sex.  The child sex trade, feeding on fears of AIDS among adults is also gaining ground, with children as young as 10 being forced into sex and pornographic films in the West.[12]

It must be noted that the fall of the Iron Curtain is a main contributing factor to the current situation, as history tells of a Soviet Union that was less exploitive towards prostitution.  Alice Leuchtag states, “After the Bolshevik revolution of 1918, the USSR abolished organized prostitution and ex-prostitutes were rehabilitated, educated and brought into the mainstream of economic life.”[13]  This was in accordance with communist ideology which advocated the social equality of the sexes.  Leuchtag also sites that after the Cuban revolution in 1959, Fidel Castro’s government similarly abolished organized prostitution and closed down the brothels in Havana, which had been one of the mainstay’s of the Mafia controlled gambling and tourist industry under Fu’gencio Batista.[14]

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, however, a whole new population of impoverished women has been created.  Contributing factors are deregulation, privatization, and growing class inequality, which have produced the serious social and economic problems such as organized criminal gangs, poverty and unemployment.  In Russia over 75 % of the unemployed are women, making them one of the most disadvantaged groups in modern Russia.[15]

Internationally  organized prostitution is so prevalent in Russia that a  recently established Strip Tease school has emerged in Moscow.  The advertisement for the school proclaims “Leave all your clothes and shame behind.”[16] Hundreds of women applied to Russia’s first licensed school of striptease saying it may be their only way out of poverty (Leuchtag, 10).  Applicants for the school had to try out by stripping to their underwear and parading before the director, 2 male judges and photographers.  According to the director of the school, graduates are to be sent to Germany, France, Norway, Sweden and Singapore, where they will be guaranteed up to $120 per night for 3 to 6 months, with the director getting 15% of the earnings.  The director predicted that many of the women will stay abroad to work as prostitutes, thus acknowledging the fact that “Aphrodite” serves as a front for Internationally organized prostitution.[17]



Trafficking in Asia



In Asia, the situation is equally as devastating.  A 1991 Conference of South Asian Women’s Organizations estimated that 30 million women had been sold world wide since the mid – 1970’s.  In South Asia, New Delhi has become a major center for the buying and selling of women.  In Bombay there are about 100,000 prostitutes in 25 red light districts.  Also according to the World Health Organization, more than one-third of all prostitutes have tested positive for HIV, making them one of the highest risk group in the world.  Then whether sick or well, after age 40 most prostitutes in India are forced out into the streets, where they attempt to live by begging or stealing.  Once on the streets they soon die.  In India, girl prostitutes as young as 9 can fetch up to 60,000 rupees, or $2,000 at auctions where Arabs from the Persian Gulf bid against Indian men who believe sleeping with a virgin cures gonorrhea and syphilis.[18]

Thailand is notorious for its international sex tourism trade, and is one of the world’s leading traffickers and sexual exploiters of young women.  It is estimated that between 6.2% and 8.7% of the countries female population is involved in prostitution.[19]  In Thailand the sex tourism industry is government sponsored, and there is government literature produced advertising brothels and bars described in exciting and exotic terms.  Foreign ‘johns’ are among Thailand’s leading source of hard currency.  In 1967, the industry became more entrenched when Thailand contracted with the U.S. government to provide “rest and recreation” services to the troops  during the Vietnam War.  As well, the World Bank recommended the development of mass tourism in Thailand as a way for the country to pay on its debts for agricultural development loans.[20]  “The economic initiatives on the bank’s report led directly to the 4 billion per year multinational Thai sex-tour industry, which involves a network of cozy relations between banks, airlines, tour operators, hotels, and bar and brothel owners and agents, all of whom extract their profits from the bodies of pitifully underpaid village girls, some as young as 14.”[21]  Yet the highest earnings for a bar girl, an elite among Thai prostitutes, is only $160 dollars a month, but this meager amount often supports entire families in the countryside who survive on the earnings of one daughter in Bangkok.   As in India, there is a high premium put on extreme youth and virginity, as a girl who has not yet menstruated brings a price that is more than 60 times the usual.  Deflowering a virgin is said to increase virility, so many prepubescent virgins are brought into the city for good luck during the Chinese New Year.[22]

In Japan, there are an estimated 70,000 Thai women, mostly from rural villages, working as hostesses in sex clubs run by Yakuzo Gangsters.  Women are sold by Thai brokers for an average of $14,000 each and resold to the clubs by Japanese brokers for $30,000, which they of coarse are obliged to work off, but rarely can.[23]  Being a prostitute is legal in Japan, adults can engage in sexual relations with juveniles over 12 lawfully.  It only becomes punishable when it is arranged by a pimp.[24]  Even when illegal trafficking activity is taking place, it is reported that Japanese officials take a very lax attitude towards it, to the point in which Japanese police have returned escapee prostitutes back to gangsters.[25]

Internationally organized prostitution depends on a combination of third world poverty, first world economic policies, lays that permit International trafficking, and worldwide patriarchal cultural norms.  Throughout history patriarchy has valued women not as persons but as things, pieces of property to be bought and sold.  What are the implications of Internationally organized prostitution?  There is much evidence to suggest that it is women who have held communities together and that it is through women that cultures are developed, sustained and passed down to the next generation.  So what are the implications when societies are snipped of so many of their women?  The very fabric of life begins to disintegrate: after a while, it doesn’t take much to be able to sell off the children as well.[26]


Trafficking in North America



The trafficking of women does not exclude itself from North America.  Many women, especially from Russia are being brought to the United States.  In a recent police raid of a massage parlor, many undocumented Russian Women were found, who claimed their journey began with an advertisement in a St. Petersburg Newspaper, which advertised for high paying jobs abroad.  “But they found themselves instead, giving favors by day, sleeping by night.”[27]  The U.S. state department has become alarmed with the problem, so in a recent conference, they invited 12 Russian judges and lay enforcement officers to discuss the problem of trafficking and sexual exploitation in Russia.  It has also set aside $1 million in aid to reduce the violence against women.  In a recent address, the U.S. Secretary of State – Madelaine Albright, stated, “If those who traffic in drugs should be punished severely, so should those who traffic in human beings.”[28]

Victoria Pope and Margret Loftus, in their article, “Trafficking in Women”, describe an undercover operation done by Steven Gallster and Gillian Caldwell of the Global Survival Network.  They were able to infiltrate sex-trade operations by posing as American Business partners trying to import Russian women to the U.S.  With a hidden camera, they recorded interviews with a Moscow circle which included a Pimp, a banker, a security company director, and several traffickers of women.  Gallster was told that “We collaborate very closely with the police and FSB (former KGB).  There fore, we don’t have any problems.  And we do not have any problems with criminal groups.”[29]  The gangsters offered them several methods of importing the women.  One was to set up a dummy travel agency to facilitate visa applications, or to buy a black market Serbian or South African passport for $15,000.[30]  Gallster was also told that several people in the Foreign Affairs Ministry could help, with bribes running as high as $800, however, it could later be deducted from the girl’s salary.  Although the women-for-export gangs are considered to be on the lower end of the Mafia pecking order, the high powered Mafia elite is happy to take a commission in exchange for providing protection.[31]


The European Union’s Response to Trafficking



Along with the U.S., the EU is also looking for solutions to combat the trafficking of women.  The European Justice Commissioner, Anita Gradin commented, “Europe must step up its battle against trafficking in women, and curb the booming sex industry.”[32]  In 1996, a conference took place in Vienna to discuss the growing problem of international organized crime, and more specifically the trafficking of women.  Representatives of IS-EU government took part in the conference along with delegates from the U.S., Canada, the UN, and EU aspirants from Eastern Europe, Cyprus, and Malta.[33]  This conference has provided the impetus for the EU’s policies on trafficking.  The EU has a clear mandate regarding issues of immigration according to article K.1 of the TEU.  The Union has the capacity to set the conditions of entry and movement by nationals of third countries on the territory of member states, as well as third country nationals conditions of residency.  Sub-section 9 authorizes community jurisdiction over “police cooperation for the purposes of preventing and combating terrorism, un-lawful drug trafficking and other serious forms of International crime.  Therefore, trafficking of women falls under EU competency as a policy issue directly in matter of and relating to entry into, movement within, and exit from member States of women trafficked from non-member countries.”[34]

It is useful to treat the EU as an example to look towards, as although there is a general lack of Union action towards social policy, the EU does give a relatively great amount of attention to "women’s issues”.  Also, with the large migration of women being transported into the EU as sex workers, the EU is in a position to set an example for the rest of the world in combating the trafficking of women.  Also, the history of EC/EU attention to women’s conferences on the subject has been quite remarkable.  The first European workshop significant to community action was held in Rotterdam in April 1983.  The conference involved women who were active against or escaping from International trafficking and cross-border prostitution.  The European Parliament cited the “unequal division of power between men and women as the primary cause of these forms of violence.[35]

The European Conference of Trafficking in Women, held in Vienna, 1996, led to the 1996 Communication from the European Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on Trafficking in Women for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation.[36]  The document outlines a framework for a European approach to trafficking that is deeply influenced by feminist positions on the issue.  As a direct result of the Conference, legislation had been developed through the European Parliament.[37]  The mandate of the Europol Drugs unit had been expanded to include “the combating of trafficking in human beings”, rendering it the primary intelligence gathering agency responsible for monitoring the situation.[38]  Most of the legislative measures that have been brought forth focus on the coordination of Judicial response among member states including the basic dictate that all EU states must declare the trafficking in human beings illegal.

The 1996 Commission Communication aims to promote a coherent European approach to trafficking specifically by recommending a common definition of the problem and soliciting member states to coordinate efforts to combat the problem.  The Communication defines trafficking as “the transport of women from 3rd countries in the EU for the purpose of Sexual Exploitation.”[39]

The EU’s most recent formal policy on the issue is the 1997 Joint Action to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and Sexual Exploitation of Children.  It focuses on establishing common rules to “fight against certain forms of unauthorized immigration”, and to improve judicial cooperation in criminal matters.  The main recommendation for member states is to define trafficking along EU lines, with further criminalization of “sexual exploiting a person…for gainful purposes, where use is made of coercion, in particular violence or threats, or where deceit is used, or where there is abuse of authority or other pressure such that the person has no choice to submit to the pressure of abuse of authority.”[40]

The next major EU document was the Commission’s 1998 Communication to the Council and the European Parliament proposing further action in the fight against trafficking in women.  It serves mostly as a report on the status of EU measures on trafficking since 1996.  It also encourages member states to provide protection for witnesses since, “witnesses are often in an illegal situation” and announces that the Commission will Propose legislation, in 1999, on the issue of temporary residence permits for victims willing to testify. The Communication also recognizes that poverty is the root cause, and that development in cooperation with impoverished states would be the best way to stem the trafficking of women.  It suggests that programs such as PHARE, TACIS, and LIEN should adopt the objective of combating trafficking, as well as its current aims of promoting women’s rights, democratic principles and the development of civil society in source countries.  However, while these factors contribute to the root causes of trafficking, they do not engage directly with poverty, which leaves major inadequacies in the Communication.[41]

The STOP (Sexual Trafficking of Persons) program is a non-legal measure developed by the EU.  It aims to educate women who may become involved in trafficking prostitution as to the dangers and the legality/illegality of all aspects involved.  It establishes a framework for information training, research, and exchanges for police, immigration officials, judges, etc., on trafficking.[42]  “Trafficking is problematic for governments and states because it challenges the sovereignty of their borders, thereby undermining state authority and posing a host of domestic problems such as unemployment issues, prostitution regulation, or possible ethnic strife if large pockets of cultural/ethnic minorities establish in a receiving state”.[43]


Kosovo and the Need for International Cooperation



In war torn Kosovo, trafficking has become big business.  At the end of the NATO air strikes against Yugoslav forces in 1999, peacekeepers and UN administrators were faced with the overwhelming task of stabilizing and rebuilding Kosovo.  But with the justice and policing system destroyed, it was almost impossible to control the rise in crime.  Gordon Moon, a Canadian detective from Ontario, is the head of the Trafficking and Prostitution Investigation Unit of the UN International Police force, CIVPOL.  During the nine months that Moon has been in charge of anti-trafficking operations, he’s launched dozens of raids that have rescued 270 women.  But he admits that the women are being replaced at lightning speed.  “If a couple of women manage to escape, a bar owner can get more within a day or two” – “Supply is not a big deal for them.”[44]

Up until January 2001, criminals caught by the anti-trafficking squad faced only a few days in jail and minor interruption of business.  But Bernard Kouchner, former head of the UN administration in Kosovo, introduced new trafficking regulations that have turned sentence of days into years, and allowed police to permanently close the bars and brothels.  “In a month since the new regulations came into effect, more then 10 men arrested for trafficking are awaiting trail, and some of the most notorious hot spots are empty and shuttered.”[45]  But the traffickers are relentless, as the industry is highly profitable.  Estimates have been made that Kosovo’s 75 bars, dance halls and brothels take in more then $1.5 million per week.  Moon and his squad have urged military and international officials to make all trafficking sites off limits to their staff.  Some have agreed, but others are reluctant to make such restrictions.  “It’s really amazing to me that people from countries who are supposed to be setting an example here should engage in such behavior” says Moon.  After the air strikes ended traffickers immediately saw their chance to expand their trafficking operations into a zone where thousands of well-paid soldiers and international personnel were seen as prospective clients.[46]  What does this say about Western military operations?  Should they not be held accountable for such actions, and have a mandate of social responsibility when it comes to helping these war torn areas?

Moon also comments on the ethnic hatred “in the region, we’re aware of how much hatred there is between Serbs and Albanians, but in organized crime they cooperate without any problems.  It’s big business, and it’s completely unaffected by the political situation.”[47] Moon also identifies the kingpins of the trafficking ring in Kosovo as Serbs who were once allies with Yugoslav leader Slobo Milosevic.  So although the new President, Vojislav Kostunica, is trying to change the situation, there are still a lot of Milosevic allies in powerful positions, and so far there hasn’t been any change in the organized crime situation.  Working with ethnic Albanian allies, the Serb’s buy women from East European traffickers.  Sixty five percent of the women are from Moldova, a very poor country, about 15% are Romanian, the rest are Ukrainian, Bulgarian and Hungarian.  In Serbia, the women are raped and beaten, then sold to traffickers.  Many are murdered or die from illness and exhaustion.  Those who are rescued have a chance to return home.  Moon and his staff help protect the women until they are put onto planes for their home countries. [48]

The organization for security and cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has provided support for victims released by UN police and NATO led peacekeepers.  Rolf Welberts, the OSCE human rights director in Kosovo, says that the conditions in Kosovo are ideal for international traffickers.  “A post-war society is always an unstable society.  And unstable societies leave more room for crime – also for organized crime – then most stable societies.  In the situation we live in here, it is simply easier to organize crime and trafficking in women then it is elsewhere.  The demand is certainly here.  The other issue is, of course, the large presence of internationals.”[49]  Again Welbert emphasizes the role of foreign soldiers and aid workers.  He pointed out that the same phenomenon exists in BosniaHerzegovina where the presence of peacekeepers and aid workers initiated a major trade in trafficked women from Eastern Europe that continues to thrive today.  Despite the OSCE’s work in the area, along with the UN, NATO Peacekeepers, and the IOM, it is difficult to combat the problem with the weak justice system that exists in Kosovo.  “The pattern in a lot of countries is that local police are involved at various levels.  Sometimes they are customers, sometimes they provide protection for the clubs, sometimes they are actively involved in the trafficking operation.”[50]

It seems that because of the weak or corrupt policing systems in poor, war torn countries such as Kosovo, a better alternative may come from the International Community.  In December 2000, 148 countries gathered in Palermo, Italy, to attend a conference opening the new UN convention against transnational crime to state signature.  Of the 148 countries in attendance, 121 signed the new UN convention against Transnational organized crime, and over 80 countries signed one of its supplementary protocols – the protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children.  The two other supplementary protocols were the protocol against the smuggling of migrants by land, sea and air, and the protocol on the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms.[51]

The Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, addresses the problem on a transnational level.  It creates a global language and legislation to define trafficking, and prevent trafficking in persons.  It also establishes the parameters of judicial cooperation and exchanges of information among countries.  The protocol aims to accomplish what national legislation cannot do on its own, however it does intend to jump start national laws as well as harmonize regional legislation against the trafficking of women and children.[52]




In conclusion, not only does the trafficking of women and children involve sexual exploitation, but also labor exploitation, as the conditions are akin to slavery.  Trafficking is a structural ailment, which is woven into the socio-economic fabric of our society.  This poses an overwhelming task to government officials, law enforcement officers and NGO’s trying to combat this pervasive threat to International Security.  Although the trafficking of human beings has been a problem for quite some time, as it was first recognized internationally by the UN in 1949.  One of the most striking factors of modern concern is the huge amount of trafficked women coming from Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and the former Soviet states since the fall of the Iron Curtain.  The worsening of the economic conditions in these countries, most specifically the feminization of poverty, has had a direct effect on the flow of trafficking in women.  Trafficking in women is big business run primarily by transnational organized crime organizations, so thus it requires an international initiative to combat its power.  However, the international trafficking of women is not unlike capitalist economics itself.  It is a question of supply and demand.  The supply side requires women and families in developing or newly democratized countries to be economically desperate with few other options.  There must also be an army of extortionists, who are able to operate transnationally with little recourse, and on the demand side there must be men from affluent societies to support the industry.  We in Canada should ask ourselves why our men find it morally acceptable to support the slave trade in women and girls.




“Ending the Global Sex Trade.” Christian Science Monitor 93, January 2000:1-3.


Flowers, Barri R.  The Prostitution of Women and Girls.  North Carolina: MacFarland

            And Company, 1998: 165-195.


“In the Shadows.” Economist 356, August 2000: 1-4.


Justice and Home Affairs.  “Trafficking in Women: The Misery Behind the Fantasy:

            From Poverty to Sex Slavery.”  Comprehensive European Strategy.  August 2002.



Kells, Robin Stacey.  Trafficking the Union: (Dis)locating the Political in European

            Integration Theory.  Victoria:  University of Victoria, 2000.


Leuchtag, Alice.  “Merchants of Flesh.”  Humanist 55, March/April 1995: 1-12.


Marble, Michelle.  Europe Urged to Curb Sexual Exploitation of Women.”  Women’s

            Health Weekly, June 1996: 1-3.


Mirkinson, Judith. “The Global Trade in Women.”  Earth Island Journal 13, Winter

            1998: 1-7.


O’Beirne, Kate.  “Of Human Bondage.”  National Review 54, March 2002: 1-4.


Poolos, Alexandra.  “Sex Slave Trade Becomes Serious Problem.”  Ukrainian Research

            Project.  May 19, 2000.          



Pope, Victoria and Margret Loftus.  “Trafficking in Women.” US News & World Report

            122, August 1997: 1-7.


Raymond, Janice.  “Guide to the New UN Trafficking Protocol.”  Coalition Against

            Trafficking in Women. June 2001.




U.S. Department of State.  “Trafficking: The Global Nexus.”  International Information

            Programs.  August 2002.



Ward, Olivia.  “Canadian Detective on Mission to Rescue Kosovo Sex Slaves: 270

            Women Freed from Captivity in Past 9 Months.”  Ukrainian Research Project.

            February 23, 2001.







[1] US Department of State.  “Trafficking: The Global Nexus.”  International Information Programs.  August

                2002.  <>

[2] Leuchtag, Alice.  “Merchants of Flesh.”  Humanist 55, March/April 1995: 2.

[3] US Department of State, Trafficking: The Global Nexus, p.1.

[4] Leuchtag, Merchants of Flesh, p.2.

[5] Ibid.p.5.

[6] Ibid.

[7] “In the Shadows.”  Economist 356, August 2000: 2.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Marble, Michelle.  Europe Urged to Curb Sexual Exploitation of Women.”  Women’s Health Weekly,

                June 1996: 2.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Leuchtag, Merchants of Flesh, p.9.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid. p.10.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Flowers, Barri R.  The Prostitution of Women and Girls.  North Carolina: MacFarland and Company,

                1998: 179.

[19] Ibid. p.180.

[20] Leuchtag, Merchants of Flesh, p.4.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Flowers, The Prostitution of Women and Girls, p.180.

[23] Leuchtag, Merchants of Flesh, p.6.

[24] Flowers, The Prostitution of Women and Girls, p.181.

[25] Leuchtag, Merchants of Flesh, p.6

[26] Mirkinson, Judith.  “The Global Sex Trade in Women.”  Earth Island Journal 13, Winter 1998: 5.

[27] Pope, Victoria and Margret Loftus.  “Trafficking in Women.”  US News & World Report 122, August

                1997: 2.

[28] Ibid. p.3.

[29] Ibid. p.4.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Ibid. p.5.

[32] Marble, Europe Urged to Curb Sexual Exploitation of Women, p.1

[33] Ibid.p.2.

[34] Kells, Robin Stacey.  Trafficking the Union: (Dis)locating the Political in European Integration Theory. 

                Victoria: University of Victoria, 2000: 55.

[35] Ibid. p.57.

[36] Ibid. p.58.

[37] Ibid. p.59

[38] Ibid. p.60

[39] Ibid. p.61

[40] Justice and Home Affairs.  Trafficking in Women: The Misery Behind the Fantasy: from poverty to sex

                slavery.”  Comprehensive European Strategy.  August 2002: 8.


[41] Kells, Trafficking the Union, p.73.

[42] Justice and Home Affairs, Trafficking in Women, p.12.

[43] Kells, Trafficking the Union, p.80.

[44] Ward, Olivia.  “Canadian Detective on Mission to Rescue Kosovo Sex Slaves.”  Febuary 23, 2001.

                European Bureau. <>


[45] Ibid.p.2.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Ibid. p.3.

[48] Ibid.

[49] Poolos, Alexandra.  “Sex Slave Trade Becomes a Serious Problem.”  RFE.RL. May 19, 2000: 1.


[50] Ibid.p.3.

[51] Raymond, Janice.  “Guide to the New UN Trafficking Protocol.”  Coalition Against Trafficking in

                Women.  June 2001: 1.


[52] Ibid